Smart systems and structures are now becoming an integral part of the life of a modern person. It is generally accepted that their main feature is not just knowledge but knowledge necessary to solve certain problems. Here is more about it.
The development of smart systems and structures
In the 21st century, intelligent systems actively and dynamically enter human life. Smart systems and structures are used by a person in all spheres of his life while significantly changing his living conditions. Today it is impossible to imagine a person outside the technosphere, the decisive factor of which is human activity, and the world of technology created by man is a necessary condition for life.
Smart systems refer to the category of information and computing systems with the necessary knowledge base, action algorithm, and intellectual support (software and instrumental support, algorithmic and mathematical support), as a result of which the system can work without the help of a specialist operator responsible for deciding on the action. A distinctive feature of intelligent systems is the presence of a database necessary for solving problems of various complexity – the choice, adoption, and execution of a decision.
It should be noted that the intelligent system is designed in such a way that it is capable of:
- solve problems of different levels of complexity no worse than a person does;
- learn, systematize, compare, explain, analyze, generalize smart materials, and gain decision-making experience.
Today, many arguments favor the fact that smart systems can and should become the most important component in decision support systems, managing complex objects in modern production technology, and solving a wide range of economic problems.
A system is considered smart if it implements the following functions:
- The function of knowledge representation and processing. Smart systems must be able to accumulate knowledge about the world around it, classify and evaluate it from the point of view of pragmatics, i.e., consistency, initiate the processes of obtaining new knowledge, and correlate unique expertise with the ability stored in the knowledge base.
- The function of reasoning. Smart systems should be able to form new knowledge using logical inference and mechanisms for identifying patterns in accumulated knowledge, obtain generalized knowledge based on private knowledge, and logically plan its activities.
- Communication function. Smart systems must communicate with a person in a language close to natural language and receive information through channels similar to those used by a person when perceiving the world around him, be able to form “for himself” or at the request of a person, explanations of his activities.
Types of smart systems and structures
Smart systems can issue a solution, as well as the decision to execute, to make a correction in the designed model. Due to the rapid development of computer technology, such a direction in smart systems, such as data mining based on mathematical methods, developed algorithms for forecasting, typology, creating clusters, etc., is intensively developing. The axiological aspect of such systems and smart structures is associated with assessing their place and role in people’s lives.
Different types of smart structures are distinguished depending on the basis of the concept of intelligence. Some of them can have formalized knowledge and the ability to work with them as a basis, and others are ways of human mental activity.
Since there is no generally accepted definition, it isn’t easy to classify intelligent information systems clearly. Let’s consider intelligent information systems from the point of view of the task being solved. We can distinguish control and reference systems, computational linguistics, recognition systems, game systems, and systems for creating intelligent information systems. At the same time, systems can solve not one but several problems or, in the process of solving one problem, several others.